This is an excerpt Transportation Security White Paper I wrote in 1979 (41 Years Ago). The paper was written for the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and published in their “Clandestine Tactics and Technology Series.”
This is an excerpt from the 1979 Paper discussing Surveillance Detection
Surprise is essential to the success of any terrorist assault or abduction. It is obvious, however, that any such operation requires extensive previous reconnaissance and surveillance, and it is precisely at this stage that an attack can, and must, be thwarted.
The potential kidnap victim must develop counter-surveillance techniques and preventive measures that can reduce the possibilities of attack. Accordingly, while the victim must learn to recognize a developing ambush, he must also know how to react to and evade an abduction attempt. To this end, the potential victim must analyze beforehand the ingredients necessary for a successful ambush and develop an awareness program to protect against them.
These efforts include route planning, the designation of both danger zones and safe havens, and the realization that, once an assault begins, the vehicle he is traveling in must never stop. The priority is fleeing the attack scene as fast as possible. In this regard, a potential victim must be assured that his automobile is armored and thus strong enough to withstand a fusillade of machine-gun fire and capable of withstanding damage to the engine and tires. The final preventive element is skilled defensive and, when need be, offensive driving — something imparted by actual experience.
You can find an abstract of this paper on the National Criminal Justice Reference Service website.