In all our 48 years in the profession, we would have never thought or considered that the automotive engineering community would be required to define how humans and computers interact while driving a vehicle. A human interacting with the vehicle computers, specifically the ADAS, is called the human driving task.
Before we talk about the Human Driving Task, we need to talk about The Dynamic Driving Task, which may sound familiar to old Scotti School and present VDI students – it is the Security Driver Triangle – driver, vehicle, and environment.
Dynamic Driving Task
The Dynamic Driving Task is defined as – the driver performing the lateral and the longitudinal driving task by considering the driving environment.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines the environment as – road markings, road signs, road infrastructure, other vehicles, objects on the road/roadside, other traffic members. The Security Driver must monitor all of the previously mentioned, not only in the mode of safety but also include their security implications.
The SAE has a standard for the definition of Monitoring the Environment. According to the SAE Standard J3016, Monitoring the Environment is defined as all the activities and/or automated routines that accomplish comprehensive object and event detection, recognition, classification, and response preparation, as needed to perform the dynamic driving task competently. The key phrase is “or automated routines.” Vehicles equipped with ADAS are monitoring the environment for safety, not security.
When driving vehicles that are not equipped with automated driving systems, human drivers visually sample the road scene sufficiently to competently perform the dynamic driving task while also performing secondary tasks that require short periods of eyes-off-road time (e.g., adjusting cabin comfort settings, scanning road signs, tuning a radio, etc.). Thus, Monitoring does not entail constant eyes-on-road time by the human driver.
We know that there are times when the Security Driver will need to take their eyes off the road, but that has to be kept as short as possible.
The Human Driving Task
The Human Driving Task is defined as a person who drives a particular vehicle and who, in a vehicle equipped with an automated driving system, exchanges the dynamic driving task with such a system as necessary during vehicle operation.
What that means is if the ADAS has detected what it feels is a problem, the Human Driver “exchanges,” which means hands over control to the ADAS.
Once the ADAS takes over the Dynamics Driving Task, it supplies what the SAE calls a REQUEST TO INTERVENE. This is a notification by the automated driving system to a human driver that s/he should promptly begin or resume the performance of the dynamic driving task.
In our opinion, the SAE Standard J3016 and the Human Driving Task were brought on by the introduction of the various levels of autonomous driving, and the ISDA feels these ads posted by many of the vehicle manufacturers are irresponsible.
Human Driving and Dynamic Driving tasks in relation to autonomous driving
Let’s talk about Human Driving and Dynamic Driving tasks in relation to autonomous driving.
Autonomous LEVEL 0 – NO AUTOMATION – The full-time performance by the human driver of all aspects of the dynamic driving task. There are not many Executive Vehicles that have no ADAS.
LEVEL 1 – DRIVER ASSISTANCE – The part-time or driving mode-dependent execution by a driver assistance system of either steering or acceleration/deceleration with the expectation that the human driver performs all other aspects of the dynamic driving task. All Executive Vehicles are Level 1. The Security Driver needs to know and understand what portion of the dynamic driving task the ADAS is monitoring; it may not be the same task when moving from one vehicle to another.
LEVEL 2 – PARTIAL AUTOMATION – The part-time or driving mode-dependent execution by one or more driver assistance systems of both steering and acceleration/deceleration with the expectation that the human driver performs all other aspects of the dynamic driving task. Most all Executive Vehicles are Level 2. It is the same scenario as previously mentioned. The Security Driver needs to know and understand what portions of the dynamic driving task the ADAS is monitoring; it may not be the same task when moving from one vehicle to another.
LEVEL 3 – CONDITIONAL AUTOMATION – The part-time or driving mode-dependent performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene. Some but not all Executive Vehicles are Level 3.
In a past episode – episode 152, we talked about the Security Driver Algorithm. We covered what the SAE calls Intervene, but others call it the switch point. As we mentioned, the point where the ADAS (aka the computer) asks the driver to “intervene” may work well in a safety scenario but not in a security scenario.
Here is the excerpt from episode 152.
The Switch – Security Versus Safety
When the ADAS takes over control of the vehicle, it’s not making decisions based on security; the computer makes decisions based on what an algorithm says the vehicle’s path should be. In a security scenario, the path the computer wants you to drive and the path the driver will need to avoid a security incident may not be the same. The vehicle can supply the safety algorithm – but the driver’s mind and eye working with their skill, knowledge, and experience are the security algorithm.
The question that the ADAS algorithm cannot answer is the switch due to safety or a security event. The algorithm can’t make that decision. The individual holding on to the steering wheel has to control the security algorithm.
The Switch Point and Training
The switch point, the switch from a human to a computer controlling the vehicle, is becoming a science all unto itself. From the training perspective, this change from human to computer needs to be managed; training scenarios need to be designed to create the switch, and instructors need to know how to measure the driver’s response to the switch.
It is imperative that the instructor knows when, wherein the exercise, and at what speed the switch will occur before the driver enters the exercise. The switch needs to be monitored, instructed, measured, and made into a teaching point.
As a security driver or supplier of secure transportation, your job is to drive the vehicle and perform the dynamic driving task in safety and security.
Keep in mind that when driving a vehicle equipped with ADAS, understand that you have switched from the dynamic driving task to being part of the human driving task. It is your job, your obligation to understand the switch from you controlling the vehicle to the ADAS controlling vehicle.
If you attend either Executive Protection or protective driver training program, the switch from human to computer control of a vehicle needs to be discussed.
If you have an interest in going much deeper into these types of topics, I invite you to check out the International Security Driver Association’s website and consider joining the membership to gain access to the encyclopedia of executive protection and secure transportation – The ISDA Knowledge Center.
For more information on all of the member benefits, head over to https://isdacenter.org.